a. Overall Stand and Canopy composition of the Neyagawa Forest Remnant Complex

Detail measurements and observation for this study, as described under methods, were collected from 42 sites (30 in Polygon I, 3 in Polygon II, 4 in Polygons IIIa and 5 in Polygon IV) out of a total of 98 way-pointed visited locations .

The 27 tree species found at the site are common in this ecoregion and represent about 50% of all the species reported for this climatic zone[i].  The 23 species of shrubs so far identified comprise a mixture of edge shrubs and shade tolerant forest understory shrubs which represent … % of the most common forest and forest ecotone shrubs in southern Ontario. Two shrub species remain unidentified and another two need confirmation.

Table 1A shows the summary of the basic tree and shrub abundance metrics for the entire Neyagawa Forest Complex in terms of % Constancy  , Basal Area measurements (m2/ha) and relative basal area, as well as, %Encounter[1]



Table 1A. Summary of Trees and Shrubs cover characteristics at the Neyagawa Forest Complex

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Table 1B. Summary of Trees and Shrubs cover characteristics at the Neyagawa Forest Complex – revise table to include Coeff. of Conserv,!!!!

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Table 1B summarizes other metrics such as Relative canopy contribution ratio cover[2]; the average basal area importance value[3]; the Vegetation Importance Index[4]; Wetness Indices[5], and in the last column shows the NHIC Coefficients of Conservatism[6].

The specific floral diversity of the Neyagawa Forest Complex reflects the relative dominance of hygric and mesic environments characteristic of the area. Figure 5 shows the frequency distribution of wetness indices of the shrub and tree species represented in Polygon I where the largest number of species is to be found associated with the widest area of the complex and of habitat diversity.

Figure 5. Wetness index frequency distribution for shrub and tree species in Polygon I of the Neyagawa Forest Complex.


Figure 6 depicts the distributions of mean and standard deviation ranges of height classes for each of the tree species encountered in this study. Most mature trees had canopy heights in the 15 to 20m range (Tree Height Class 3) with breast-height diameters (dbh) ranging from 25 to 45cm. At some locations, some of the trees reached canopy heights in the 20 to 25m range (Tree Height Class 4) – particularly some of the Silver and Red maples with dbh of over 90cm. Scattered throughout the periphery and edges of the forest, one would find Red Oaks with spreading canopies and multiple trunks – each in the dbh range between 85 and 100cm reaching, however, heights of only 10 to 15m (Tree Height Class 2). Understory shrubs in sites with trees averaging 15 to 20m or more in height (Height Classes 3 and 4) had heights less than 1m (Shrub Height Class 1). Peripheral sites or sites with younger growth had a larger variety of taller shrub species. The invasive Buckthorn at some of these locations had exemplars well over 5m in height (Shrub Height Class 4).

Figure 6. Height class distribution of mean and +/- standard deviation values for the tree species encounetred in the study.

Disturbed sites under succession were dominated by a mixed stand structure with tree heights below 15m and dbh below 25cm. Mature sites, as expected, were single or two storied sites dominated by trees with dbh above 35cm and a with heights above 20m. Sites with intermediate successional stages tended to have a mixture of tree heights and diameters, as well as, evidence of shelterwood logging and a mixed stand structure. See Figure xyxyx for successional zoning of the Neyagawa Woodland Patch.


[1]that represents the probability of encountering a given species with DBH such that they are counted in the determination of basal area within the entire forest complex or any region of interest

[2]which gives an indication of the contribution of the different species to the canopy cover.These would be trees with heights of 15m and above (classes 3 to 5). In this work canopy refers to the tallest tree layer (usually for the Neyagawa forest varied between 20 and 25m). Sub-canopy refers to trees reaching the lower range of the canopy (15 to 20m) and thus acting effectively as part of the canopy , Understory (5 to 15m) refers to the mid layer formed by young trees under the canopy, shrub layer (1 to 10m) and ground cover (below 1m).

[3]which ranks the different trees or shrubs in terms of their overall contribution to the stand’s composition

[4]a density-frequency-dominance number ranking the importance of a given species in the stand

[5]The range of the tree species’ wetland category values, are given as minimum and maximum

[6]a ranking that indicates the importance of a given species in what is thought of as original flora

[i].              This number of species, however, might have more to do with the Net Primary Productivity of this area than climatic factors. See page 36 of Ian Douglas Thompson. 2000. Forest Vegetation of Ontario: Factors Influencing Landscape Change. In AEcology of a managed terrestrial landscape: patterns and processes of forest landscape of Central and Northen  Ontario. Ministry of Natural Resources@.  David Euler, Ajith H. Perera, Ian Douglas Thompson (eds.). UBC Press, Toronto, Ontario


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