II. Methods

Summary of surveying measurements

Several metrics were used to explore the compositional structure of the Neyagawa forest using 41 surveyed sites (points) out of 104 way-pointed locations – see Table 1 for a summary of the methods.

MeasurementMethodImplemenation EquipmentNotes
MeasurementMethodImplemenation EquipmentNotes
Site waypoint markingDevice Averaging Function. Way point recorded with accuracies between +/-4 to +/- 7 mGarmin 12X GPS
Site dimensions and species presence/absence assessmentThe site way point location formed the centre of a circular surveying site with a 10m radiusThe radius was determined using a Simmons LRF 600 laser rangefinder.Based on measurements in the field, the human gaze - under normal head and eye position, rests on the ground around 10 to 12m away depending on the height of the person. A ~ 10m radius is a very natural surveying dimension.
Standard site picturesFour cardinal pictures were shot in the order North, East, South, and West views from the center of the waypoint. Camera was held at eye level and aligned with the true horizon. A picture straight up of the canopy and down at the ground were also standard. Ground pictures contain a scale. All blooming or fruiting vegetation, disease or damage evidence on vegetation, and evidence of fauna was also routinely recorded.Sony alpha 700 or a90 with a 35mm Minolta lens.Other views of the ground were also necessary if the ground cover was found to vary in different directions.
Noise levelsDevice averaging capture-function at a 100ms rate. Reported values correspond to a 1 minute of averaging noise capture.i-pod2 , Apple Earphones with Remote and Mic, and the Decibel Ultra applicationControl measurements measured at road side. Loudest car noise is due to tire friction: in average the noise reaches 85 to 90dB. Winter tires, SUV's and other large vehicles generate over 100dB noise.
Stand Basal Area (BA)Stand basal area was measured using the method described by Farm Forest Line . Basal area of dead standing (including inclined) and of dead fallen was also measured. See FEREN-forms Appendix AThe Basal Area Factor (BAF) was calculated according to BrackThe most common probes used in this study were the thumb at "1/3 nail" (1.885cm width), and the inner opening of the ring probe (1.4cm diam).
Height classesHeight classes were established separately for trees and shrubs. The ranges used are design to identify stand structure in the forest, and shrub structure at the edges.See FEREN-forms Appendix A
Community Age or Seral Stage descriptionCommunity Age or Seral Stage was assessed based on the ELC protocol descriptors modified to include successional, plant form, and age information.see FEREN-Form #3 (appendix B)
Ground cover (%)Ground cover was estimated on 1sqm areas at the centre of the site in situ, or from ground cover picturesEstimates of cover were done with the aid of Area Percentage Charts from OIP , BC Field Manual for Describing Terrestrial Ecosystems , and a form developed using a random algorithm
Total Canopy cover (%)Canopy cover was determined using threshold B&W canopy images.see Special Methods below for details.
Stem densityStem density was determined from the standard four cardinal pictures taken at each site and processed using Corel X4.Workflow for Corel X4: 1. Load calibrated template → 2. Set uniform transparent at setting ~20 → 3. Load site’s cardinal picture → 4. CTL-End to send back cardinal picture (template on top) → 5.CTL-A to select all → 6. P for centering both images (ensure they both are of the same dimension, if not select template and grab corner while holding SHIFT key to enlarge of shrink both dimensions to the same scale) → when finished counting use TAB to select site picture and DEL → repeat from step 3see .... for details.
Site relative light intensityLight intensity at the site was determined collecting light intensity measurements outside the forest and at the forest site both from above and laterally from each of the cardinal directions. light intensity was determined using a ... photometer (cd)


[i].              Farm Forest Line. Tree Forest Measurements. Stand Basal Area. http://www.farmforestline.com.au/pages/6_tree_forest_meas.html January 21, 2012

[ii].             Brack C. 1999. Stand basal area, Forest Measurement and Modelling. Department of Forestry, Australian National University.  http://fennerschool‑associated.anu.edu.au/mensuration/s_ba.htm

[iii].            ELC Community Description & Classification Form (page 147). Lee H., Bakowsky W, Riley J, Bowles J., Puddister M., Uhlig, P, and McMurray S. 1998.  Ecological Landscape Classifiaction for Southern Ontario: First approximation and its Application. SCSS Field Guide: FG-02. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Southcentral Science Section. Science Development and Transfer Branch. North Bay . Ontario

[iv].            Ontario Institute of Pedology. 1985. Field Manual for describing soils. 3rd ed. Ontario Institute of Pedology, Guelph, Ontario.

[v].             Field Manual for Describing Terrestrial Ecosystems. Land Management Handbook No. 25 1998. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks. B.C. Ministry of Forests. Figure 3.2

[vi].            Random coverage charts developed using ….

 


[i].              Farm Forest Line. Tree Forest Measurements. Stand Basal Area. http://www.farmforestline.com.au/pages/6_tree_forest_meas.html January 21, 2012

[ii].             Brack C. 1999. Stand basal area, Forest Measurement and Modelling. Department of Forestry, Australian National University.  http://fennerschool‑associated.anu.edu.au/mensuration/s_ba.htm

[iii].            ELC Community Description & Classification Form (page 147). Lee H., Bakowsky W, Riley J, Bowles J., Puddister M., Uhlig, P, and McMurray S. 1998.  Ecological Landscape Classifiaction for Southern Ontario: First approximation and its Application. SCSS Field Guide: FG-02. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Southcentral Science Section. Science Development and Transfer Branch. North Bay . Ontario

[iv].            Ontario Institute of Pedology. 1985. Field Manual for describing soils. 3rd ed. Ontario Institute of Pedology, Guelph, Ontario.

[v].             Field Manual for Describing Terrestrial Ecosystems. Land Management Handbook No. 25 1998. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks. B.C. Ministry of Forests. Figure 3.2

[vi].            Random coverage charts developed using ….

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