b. Floristic Indices

A group of floristic indices were also used in the analysis. Wetland Indicator or Wetness Index values (ELC) and Coefficient of Conservatism were collected for all plant species identified at the study sites. Values were obtained from the USDA Plant Database[i] and the MNR NHIC Database[ii].

(Climax) Adaptation Number (CAN) values as developed by Curtis and McIntosh33, 34 were also collected for all identified tree species. Curtis developed these values for both the southern and northern regions of Wisconsin. Of the 28 species present in our area 9 are only described by Curtis for the southern region of Wisconsin, and 4 only for the northern region[1], the other 15 are described in both regions. The Adaptation Numbers used were selected according to the following criteria: for species of trees with wetness index values between -5 and -1 (obligated to facultative wetland) lowland values were chosen, for trees with wetness index values of zero and above upland values were chosen. All values corresponded to those reported for the southern region, except for the four species mentioned only for the northern region in which case the corresponding northern values were used (see Table 3).

Common Name Species

Climax Adaptation Number

 (CAN)

notes

Wetness Index

(NHIC)

Coefficient of Conservatism (NHIC)

Red Maple Acer rubrum

7

0

4

Silver Maple Acer saccharinum

4

only reported in the southern region of Wisconsin

-3

5

Sugar Maple Acer saccharum

10

3

4

White Birch Betula papyrifera

5

only reported in the northen region of Wisconsin

2

2

Musclewood Carpinus caroliniana

9

only reported in the southern region of Wisconsin

0

6

Hop-hornbeam Ostrya virginiana

9

4

4

Beech Fagus grandifolia

9.5

3

6

White Oak Quercus alba

6

3

6

Swamp White Oak Quercus bicolor

4

only reported in the southern region of Wisconsin

-4

8

Bur Oak Quercus macrocarpa

1 (5)

In lowlands (hygric conditions) Bur Oaks are late comers

1

5

Red Oak Quercus rubra

7

only reported in the northen region of Wisconsin

3

6

Black Oak Quercus velutina

2.5

only reported in the southern region of Wisconsin

5

8

Shagbark Hickory Carya ovata

6

3

6

Bitternut Hickory Carya cordiformis

8.5

only reported in the southern region of Wisconsin

0

6

?Walnut Juglans nigra

6

only reported in the southern region of Wisconsin

3

5

White Ash Fraxinus americana

8

3

4

Red/Green Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica

5

only reported in the southern region of Wisconsin

-3

3

White Pine Pinus strobus

5

only reported in the northen region of Wisconsin

3

4

Hemlock Tsuga canadensis

8.5

3

7

Black Cherry Prunus serotina

3.5

3

3

Prunus/Malus Spp Prunus spp.

3.5

Largetooth Aspen Populs grandidentata

5

3

5

Trembling Aspen Populus deltoides

3.5

-1

4

Weeping Willow Salix babylonica

1

only reported in the southern region of Wisconsin

Basswood Tilia americana

8.5

3

4

White Elm Ulmus americana

8

-2

3

Rock Elm Ulmus thomasii

7

only reported in the northen region of Wisconsin

Slipery Elm Ulmus rubra

8

only reported in the southern region of Wisconsin

Poisson Ivy Toxicodensdron radicans spp. negundo

-1

5

American Hazel Corylus americana

4

5

Bush Honysuckle Diervilla lonicera

5

5

Maple-leaved Viburnum Viburnum acerifolium

5

6

Downy-Arrow Wood Viburnum rafinesquianum

5

7

Running Strawberry bush Euonymus obovatus

5

6

Silky Dogwood Cornus obliqua

-4

5

Gray Dogwood Cornus racemosa

0

Red Oiser Cornus stolonifera

-3

2

Blueberriy Vaccinium spp. L
European Buckthorn Rhamnus cthartica

3

-3

Juneberry Amelanchier arborea

3

5

Smooth Serviceberry Amelanchier laevis

5

5

Chokeberry?? Photinia (Aronia)  melanocarpa

-3

7

Hawthorn Cretagus spp.
Choke Cherry Prunus virginiana

2.5

-2

4

Smooth Blackberry Rubus canadensis

1

2

Black Raspberry Rubus occidentalis

5

2

Rose spp Rosa spp.
Virginia Creeper Parthenocissus vitacea

-2

0

Riverbank  Grape Vitis riparia

1

6

Barberry Berberis spp.

4

-1

 


[1]The three species corresponding only for the northern region were Red Oak, White Pine, White Birch and Rock Elm. Of these the first two have a dominant presence in our forest.



[i].              NRCS-USDA. “Plants Database – Wetland Indicator Status.” Retrieved 2012 (http://plants.usda.gov/java/).

[ii].             MNR. “Natural Heritage Information Centre – Tracks and maintains data on rare species in Ontario.” Retrieved 2012 (http://nhic.mnr.gov.on.ca/MNR/nhic/species.cfm).

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